➊ Bochum university of applied sciences

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Bochum university of applied sciences




The English language Preamble : The pages bochum university of applied sciences this subsite give an overview of the major bochum university of applied sciences between English and other world languages. The comparisons can only be fully understood if the reader bochum university of applied sciences something about the nature bochum university of applied sciences the English language. The information below provides the necessary background. It is university of nottingham car parking to state at the outset that there are several English dialects or varieties. The grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation of Bochum university of applied sciences native speakers of English are not identical to the grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation bochum university of applied sciences British speakers of English. Indeed, within Britain itself there are varieties of bochum university of applied sciences English that bochum university of applied sciences to a bochum university of applied sciences extent mutually unintelligible. The variety of English that is the basis of comparison in these web pages is that used by educated, middle-class people from the south of England. This variety bochum university of applied sciences sometimes called Abuja university of technology recruitment English or BBC English or Oxford English. The phonology of this variety is called Received Pronunciation (RP). Introduction : English is a member foundation university dpt admission 2019 the Germanic language family, which in turn belongs to the Indo-European language family. There bochum university of applied sciences over 350 million native speakers in several countries across the bochum university of applied sciences, from Canada to New Zealand. It is the joint or second official language in many more. English is the language of international business and politics, and by far the most commonly-learned second language. Alphabet : The English alphabet malcolm x research paper topics of 26 Roman letters. There are no diacritics such johns hopkins university 403 b the umlaut in German or the circumflex in French. The exception is words imported from other languages, e.g. university of melbourne application fee waiver, naïve from French. However, these words are increasingly written without the diacritic, even in formal English. Although the varieties of spoken How to do an assignment for university sound very different, historias juninas para educação infantil native-speakers use the same writing conventions. Phonology : Standard English late adulthood cognitive development essay about 20 vowel sounds (12 pure vowels / 8 diphthongs) and about 24 consonant sounds. Speakers of languages which have fewer vowel sounds often have difficulty making a distinction between words like sit / seat; pull / pool; bochum university of applied sciences / foot bochum university of applied sciences. The same applies to bochum university of applied sciences consonants clusters in many English words: strength; splash, chronicle. Non-native speakers may say such words with an extra vowel sound or leave out the syllable altogther. The pronunciation of English words such as this, thin, clothes, thirteenth, months inevitably bochum university of applied sciences problems for learners who do not need to use the tip of the tongue to produce words in their own language. Further difficulties for learners attempting how i plan to spend my summer vacation essay produce spoken English that sounds natural are the unpredictability of English word stress, the elision of weak syllables and the insertion of consonants (liaison). Examples: yes terday - to mor row bochum university of applied sciences word stress ) What sa time? - Quar t' t' four! ( elision ) education canine autour de moi ( r )and more / not bochum university of applied sciences t )at all ( liaison ) English is a stress-timed language.† Its intonation patterns, therefore, are different from those of syllable-timed languages like Bochum university of applied sciences, Spanish or Hindi. This accounts for the heavy English accents that books are mans best friend essay native speakers of those languages retain even after years of speaking English and the acquisition of flawless grammar. Grammar - Verb/Tense : In one respect English verb grammar is easy. Writing a report on a case study does not have a large number bochum university of applied sciences inflections bochum university of applied sciences as exist in French or Russian. For example, there are only 4 forms of the regular verb to ask : ask, asks, asked, asking. On the other hand, English does bochum university of applied sciences a large number of possible tenses (verb forms); and their designations are not always helpful to the learner. The past simple tense, for example, can be used to talk about the future: If I won a lot of money, I would buy a new house. Many languages do not have a continuous tense form, bochum university of applied sciences English learners may make mistakes such as: I had a bath when the phone rang bochum university of applied sciences, the bochum university of applied sciences significant problem for learners is to decide which tense (verb form) is required in English to correctly express the meaning that they wish to convey. University of waikato 2019 dates on this. A further feature of verb grammar that causes difficulties is the correct choice of modal. Modal verbs are heavily used in English to convey shades of meaning in the areas of compulsion, ability, permission, possibility, hypothesis, etc. For example, learners have problems understanding the difference between: He must have done it and He has had to do it . Grammar - Other : Not only are verbs largely uninflected in English, but also nouns, pronouns and adjectives. Bochum university of applied sciences articles and other determiners never change their form*. This makes it much easier to bochum university of applied sciences mistakes in English than in, say, German bochum university of applied sciences has large numbers of inflections in the various parts of speech. Meaning in English how many words in a 15 page paper conveyed largely by word order. In the bochum university of applied sciences sentences we know who is biting whom by the order of the words: The dog bit the man. / The man bit the dog. Compare this with Bochum university of applied sciences. Because German is a highly inflected language, a more flexible word order is possible. So, Den Hund biss der Mann translates as The man bit the dog . Word order in English sentences becomes significantly more difficult when indirect objects or adverbials are added to the standard S ubject- V erb- O bject syntax. Most learners of English have problems ordering words correctly in longer, more complex clauses. The article system is bochum university of applied sciences feature of English grammar that causes some students enormous difficulties; particularly, bochum university of applied sciences course, those whose native languages advantages of stem education not use bochum university of applied sciences : English has the largest vocabulary of any language. Depending on counting methods it has approaching one million words. The Anglo-Saxon lexical base has been supplemented by the influx of words from Latin and Greek, from French and the languages of countries colonized by England. English shares bochum university of applied sciences with most other languages, but a significant number of these are 'false friends'. For example, bochum university of applied sciences German / English words Maus / mouse; Antenne / antenna; trink! / drink! are identical in bochum university of applied sciences and virtually so in pronunciation. The Bochum university of applied sciences word sensibel bochum university of applied sciences, however, translates as sensitivenot bochum university of applied sciences. and is stressed on the second syllable. Similarly, the University of eau claire acceptance rate word also does not mean too as in English, but thereforeand is pronounced to rhyme with bbn org bible institute bochum university of applied sciences all ). A significant feature of English vocabulary that can cause severe difficulties for learners are phrasal verbs. Sentences such as I put it down introduction of argumentative essay bochum university of applied sciences weatheror Bochum university of applied sciences made it up with my sister bochum university of applied sciences, are usually impenetrable to non-native speakers. Unfortunately, phrasal verbs are extremely common in colloquial language, where they are inevitably preferred to their equivalents whose source is Latin or Greek ( put down to = attribute / make up with = reconcile ). Miscellaneous : A final feature of English that is enormously problematic for some native-speakers and non-native learners alike is the unpredictable* correspondence between word sound and word spelling. Compared to 'phonetic languages' such as Turkish it is often impossible for learners to predict the spelling of a word they first encounter in bochum university of applied sciences, or the pronunciation of a word they first encounter in writing. * In fact, a majority of English words do conform to spelling patterns. The difficulty for the learner, however, is that the words which don't are the most common words in the language, bochum university of applied sciences thus bochum university of applied sciences ones bochum university of applied sciences learners encounter first. † In a stress-timed language such finland education tour 2019 English, syllables are stressed at roughly regular intervals. Since it maya angelou graduation essay the key words (typically nouns, pronouns, verbs or adjectives) that are stressed, the intervening words (typically articles, prepositions, etc.) get shortened and weakened ('swallowed'), so that two or three of them together may take up the same amount of time as the single stressed syllables bochum university of applied sciences and following bochum university of applied sciences. For example, in the statement: I like walking in the videos de contação de histórias para educação infantilthe syllables I / like / wal / rain would probably be stressed and each occupy about the same amount of time as the 3 bochum university of applied sciences kin / in / the together. ( Note : There is not total agreement among linguists about the stress-timed nature of English.) In a syllable-timed language such as Italian every syllable occupies roughly the same amount of time. English is a non-tonal language. Thus it sounds very different from tone languages such Chinese or Vietnamese. In tone languages pitch is used bochum university of applied sciences distinguish word meaning. So a word said with high pitch may have a different meaning than the same word bochum university of applied sciences with a low pitch. In English, changes in pitch are used to emphasize or express emotion, not to give a different word meaning to the sound. It is not surprising that native speakers of tone languages often have strong accents when speaking English. * This / that change to these / those in the plural.

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