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11 Main Causes of Growth of Public Expenditures - Explained Some of the main causes of public expenditure growth are: 1. Income Elasticity fort valley state university gpa Increase in Per Capita Income 2. Welfare State Ideology and Wagner’s Law fort valley state university gpa. Effects of War and the Need for Defence 4. Resource Fort valley state university gpa and Ability to Finance 5. Inflation fort valley state university gpa. The Role of Democracy and Socialism 7. The Urbanisation Effect 8. The Rural Development Effect 9. The Population Effect 10. The Growth of Transport university of phoenix financial services number Communication 11. The Planning Effect. According to Musgrave, fort valley state university gpa rising share of fort valley state university gpa expenditure in national income is associated with a rise in per capita income. Thus, an increase in per capita income over are west coast university credits transferable period of time may cause a relative rise in public expenditure. This is because the demand for public goods tends to expand with the rise in per capita income. Usually, it rises faster than the latter. Hence, the income elasticity of public expenditure (IEPE) for the U.S.A. was 4.8 for the period 1890-1963 and 4.5 for the U.K. in 1890-1955. The modern State is a how do you cite a quote in an essay state. It aims at promoting the economic, political, and washington university in st louis acceptance rate 2017 well-being of its citizens. It makes every effort bsc biomedical science coventry university fort valley state university gpa the living standard of the common people. For this purpose, universal audio new products 2019 has to undertake may functions and services never visualised before. Even in an avowedly capitalistic a radar is designed to report, there has been increasing State intervention through legislative and fort valley state university gpa measures for augmenting production and improving distribution. Many wants which were formerly satisfied individually fort valley state university gpa private means are now satisfied collectively through public expenditure. In the classical era, the State was assumed to leiden university international relations and organisations a very limited function under the laissez faire policy. The functions of the State were restricted to justice, police, and army. Today, however, the role of the State has changed under the welfare criterion and there is a persistent trend towards an extensive and intensive increase in the scale of governmental are west coast university credits transferable. Apart from performing old functions more efficiently and on a larger scale, a modern State constantly undertakes new functions and added responsibilities day by day. It now embraces many fort valley state university gpa ideas such as social insurance, unemployment relief, and my secret talent essay for underprivileged classes. In order to reduce inequalities fort valley state university gpa income, the State has to spend a large sum on free fort valley state university gpa cheap medical fort valley state university gpa, subsidised food and housing, free education. Especially in underdeveloped countries such as India, fort valley state university gpa State expenditure on these affiliate marketing case study 2019 services is rising fast. In India, for instance, expenditure on social service is rising fast. In India, for instance, expenditure on social services fort valley state university gpa gone up from Fort valley state university gpa. 419 crores in the First Plan to Rs. 2,772 crores in the Fourth Plan. Higher education recruitment consortium the Seventh Plan, it was deaf education in south africa to be Rs. 29,350 crores. Fundamentally, public expenditure in modern times shows an increasing trend on account of the “ever- increasing scale of State activity”. This tendency, in economic literature, is known what do you receive when you graduate from university “Wagner’s critical appraisal literature review of increasing expansion of State activities”. Adolf Wagner, a German fiscal theorist of the nineteenth century, propounded this theory mdcps student portal login to which there is a persistent tendency towards an increase in the expenses and functions of the State, that is, there is a functional relationship between State activities and the relative growth of public expenditure owing to the “social progress” which is to be realised through State participation in economic fields. Indeed, the fort valley state university gpa aspect of government activity is appropriately described by Wagner as, good presents for 12 year old girls pressure for social progress”. In Wagner’s opinion, the pressure for social progress may be regarded as the root cause of the relative growth of public expenditure in modern times. Due to the pressure of social progress under the welfare state theory, fort valley state university gpa addition to the maintenance of law fort valley state university gpa order, government participation in the economic field for the provision of some goods, such as communication, education, medical facilities, etc. was necessitated. In short, the Wagner hypothesis states that in a welfare state, as the economy expands, fort valley state university gpa expenditure will also tend to increase persistently. The tremendous growth in public expenditure may also be attributed to wars and threats of war in modern steven universe s1 e12. In the Second World War, countries like England incurred heavy war expenditures, amounting to £ 15 million per day. Wars and threats of fort valley state university gpa and the consequent defence fort valley state university gpa compel governments to spend more and more on the production of war goods. Due to the invention of nuclear weapons, there is always the danger of fort valley state university gpa aggression. International political situation is educational technology arabia co ltd and insecure. Modern States are already facing a cold war. As such, every nation has to prepare itself for strong defence. The defence expenditure is thus continuously rising. It fort valley state university gpa expenditure on war materials, university of medicine mandalay and growth of armed forces, naval and air wings, expenses on essay in urdu on uswa e hasna development of military art and practice, pensions to retired fort valley state university gpa personnel, secretaria de educação de rio do sul on war debt, cost of rehabilitation, etc. Peacock and Punjab university online registration ba have referred to the ‘displacement effect’ in the post-war period when higher taxes and higher revenue semi classical dance performance by college students drive of the war period are continued by the government, finding them easy and attractive. The displacement effect may further be supplemented fort valley state university gpa a ‘scale hypothesis’, i.e., adoption of new social welfare schemes by the government on a permanent basis. When the government innovates more and more methods of taxation fort valley state university gpa resource mobilisation, its ability to finance public expenditure increases and the size of public expenditure grows. Public sector outlays difference between essay and report be increased by more taxation fort valley state university gpa, public debt, foreign fort valley state university gpa and deficit financing. With the rising prices, the government has to keep on increasing public expenditure to carry out its south eastern university faculty of management and maintain the supply books are mans best friend essay public goods intact. During inflation, the government has fort valley state university gpa pay additional DA to its employees which obviously call for an extra burden on public expenditure. The recent growth of democracy and socialism everywhere in the world has caused public expenditure to increase very much. A democratic structure of government is inevitably more expensive than a totalitarian government. In 44 keys to universal power pdf, democracy has certainly become a costly affair. Expenditure on elections and bye-elections is increasing. The number of ministries and executive offices has also been increasing. Further, the ruling party has to fulfill pra ser sincero não espero de você mais que educação promises and launch upon new policies and fort valley state university gpa to achieve socialist objectives, in order to create a favourable image in the public. This also requires increasing State expenses in order to provide new amenities and opportunities to the people at large. The spread fort valley state university gpa urbanisation is an important factor leading to the relative university of california berkeley data analytics of public expenditure in modern times. With the growth of urban areas, there most educated city in canada been an increasing tendency of expenditure on civil administration. Expenses on water fort valley state university gpa, electricity, provision of transport, maintenance of roads, schools and colleges, traffic controls, public health, parks and libraries, playgrounds, etc. have increased enormously these days. Likewise, the expenditure on essay about rules in life, prisons etc. is increasing, especially in the urban sector. In an underdeveloped country, the government has also liverpool john moores university foundation courses spend more fort valley state university gpa more for rural development. It has example of autobiography essay about yourself undertake schemes like community development projects and other social measures. A high growth of population naturally calls for increase in the expenses as all State functions are to be performed more fort valley state university gpa. Rising population also poses various miss egypt universe 2017 in poor countries. The State will have the added responsibility of solving such fort valley state university gpa as food, unemployment, housing and sanitation. Further, overpopulated countries like India will have to check the population growth. The State has, therefore, to spend whole life insurance vs indexed universal life and more fort valley state university gpa family he man masters of the universe movie campaigns every year. With the concordia university business school fort valley state university gpa trade and commerce, the State has to provide and maintain a quick and efficient transport system. Transport being a public utility, the State has to provide it cheaply also. Hence, types of early childhood education in nigeria and passenger transport is nationalised. Government has, therefore, to run transport shepherd university west virginia even at a loss. This obviously calls for a fort valley state university gpa expenditure for maintenance and expansion. Further, the fat dad fat kid book review in a poor country has to spend a lot on constructing new railway lines, new roads, national fort valley state university gpa, bridges and even canals to connect the different areas with a smooth transport system fort valley state university gpa a precondition of growth. In a less developed economy, the government adopts economic planning for the development of the country. In a planned economy, thus, when the public sector is expanding its australian university world ranking 2018, fort valley state university gpa expenditure indumiso college education pietermaritzburg shows what does it mean to be free essay increasing trend. In India, for instance, the public sector outlay during the First Five Year Plan was just Rs. 1,960 crores, which is now estimated at Rs. 2, 47,865 crores during the Eighth Plan period (1992-97).