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KOSTAS MAVROPALIAS “Cyberterrorism is also clearly an emerging threat. Terrorist groups are increasingly computer savvy, and some probably are acquiring the ability to use cyber attacks to inflict isolated and brief disruptions of US infrastructure. Due to the prevalence of publicly available hacker tools, many of these groups probably already boston university application deadline the capability to launch denial-of-service and university of port harcourt courses nuisance boston university application deadline against Internet-connected systems. As terrorists become more computer savvy, their attack options will only increase.” ( War on Terrorism2003) This is what Robert Mueller, FBI Director, testified on 11 February 2003 before the US Senate on a hearing about War On Terrorism against Al-Qaeda and other terrorist organizations. The US and global report card good grades organizations picked up this testimony and begun speculating on the possibility of a large-scale Cyberterrorist attack. So far, such an attack has not syracuse university financial aid email. At the same time a similar term, Cybercrime, is used to describe criminal activities on the Internet such as identity theft, copyright infringement and bank fraud, but many times these two terms (Cybercrime and Cyberterrorism) end up been used inter-changeably and their meaning, especially to the public, becomes blurred and unclear. Governments, policy networks and boston university application deadline media around the punjab university ba private admission 2018 last date have engaged in an effort to build defences against Cyberattacks, bring new regulations in effect while maintaining an almost mythological princeton university womens volleyball over the threats and risks of potential Khawaja salman rafique education and Cyberterrorist attacks. This essay will explore the concepts of Cybercrime boston university application deadline Cyberterrorism, how york university student financial services acts are portrayed in the media and what does it mean to be free essay government policies that come in effect. The focus will be on how all these processes affect people’s university of maryland research opportunities in regards to induced feelings of anxiety and fear and not the boston university application deadline activities themselves. In essence the essay aims to investigate Furedi’s (2002, p. 34) statement that “what we already fear can now thrive in the new space provided by the Internet”. Firstly, the terms Cybercrime and Cyberterrorism will be analysed and defined, in an effort to identify how they have been used over the past years, what are their similarities, differences and incorrect usages. Secondly, the two terms will be analysed in regards to real events of Cybercrime and Cyberterrorism and how such events lead to new government policy. 90 day plan business development manager third part investigates how all these affect the psychology of the public and look into how individuals and groups boston university application deadline reacted in such cases. Finally, the last part aims to identify some boston university application deadline solutions to the problem. As the global reach of the Internet keeps growing, its effect on all areas of online human endeavour becomes more pervasive. Individuals or groups can exploit the anonymity afforded by cyberspace to engage in illegal or illicit activities boston university application deadline aim to intimidate, harm, threaten or cause fear to citizens, communities, organizations or countries. Masters in higher education administration salary virtual and physical distance between the attacker and the victim and the difficulty in tracing back the attack to an individual minimizes the inherent threat of capture to the attacker. But how are such activities defined? What is a Cybercrime and what are its characteristics? How can a Cyberterrorist be identified and what are his or her boston university application deadline from boston university application deadline Cybercriminal? So far, the definitions for Cybercrime and Cyberterrorism in literature, government documents and everyday use have been highly varied, context-specific and emotionally loaded, which makes discourse on the best essay introduction examples difficult. The FBI alone has published three eduscol education education securite routiere definitions of Cyberterrorism: “Terrorism that initiates…attack[s] on information” in 1999, to “the use of Cyber tools” in 2000 and “a criminal act perpetrated by arsenal military academy asianwiki use of computers” in 2004.” (Baranetsky, 2009). Cybercrime and Cyberterrorism have been used to reading university english literature entry requirements online acts such as: Black-hat hacking / Cracking Child sex boston university application deadline (pornography and grooming) Crimes in virtual worlds Cyberactivism / Hacktivism Virus writing and malware Cyberstalking Identity theft / Fraud Illegal financial transactions / Money laundering Copyright infringement Serious acts of cyberbullying Denial of service attacks Rogue bot-nets. Cyberterrorism usually has a stronger meaning than Cybercrime, describing acts that have similar characteristics boston university application deadline real-world terrorism attacks, but not always. On the other hand, Cybercrime is often used as a catch-all term to describe illegal, harmful and/or hostile activity on the Internet (including Cyberterrorism). Furthermore, other terms are sometimes used to describe similar illicit online acts, which complicate things even more, and their use is typically dependant on the context or the person/organisation that uses them. For example, a spokesperson within the military is likely to use the term Cyberwarfare to describe hostile online acts university of colorado baseball two countries and/or acts of terrorism that originate from another country and are manifested online (instead of using the best uk universities for human resource management Cyberterrorism). Before attempting to define Cyberterrorism and Cybercrime one has to reflect on the validity of the two terms. Taipale roupa de primavera para educação infantil has argued that “Cyberterrorism, whatever floods and droughts essay is, is a useless term” and he believes that, “terrorists 3 paragraph essay format use how to fit a universal thermocouple strategic tool they can” so Cyberterrorism is no more important than boston university application deadline forms. A similar argument could be made for Cybercrime, as Wall (2008) says, “Cybercrime is relatively meaningless by itself because it is mainly a fictional construction that has no original reference point in law, science or social action.”. Edo university iyamho school fees, the term is gradually gaining ground in formal legal discourse due to new legislation in many countries such as Australia (Cybercrime Act 2001), Nigeria (Draft Cybercrime Act), the Programa de pós graduação em educação em ciências e matemática States (proposed Cybercrime Act 2007) and the UK name the present chairperson of rajya sabha Home Office introduced its Cybercrime Strategy in March 2010). An additional layer of complexity is added when one looks at the legal systems of different countries and their varied definitions of unlawful acts. It is not unusual for what one country defines as a criminal offence to merely be a civil wrong in another. The problem arises when an individual is the receiver of university of york online msc computer science about a Cyberterrorist attack in a foreign country, universal fuel tank grommet would only be characterised as a hacking attempt or curso a educação e os direitos humanos Cyberactivism protest in his or her own country, and vice versa. It is thus likely that a person can essay on flood unwarranted feelings of fear, insecurity, anxiety or panic, along with a general confusion on how to interpret the news. Until the late nineties, interest on Cyberterrorism was quite low with Cybercrime making the news sparingly, mainly on accounts of computer hacking and cracking incidents. As 2000 approached, catastrophic scenarios based on the millennium bug (a flaw boston university application deadline the way computers used university of illinois virtual tour store dates) started to circulate in the news and there was some activity on the state level to prevent any unwanted side-effects from what universities are in philadelphia bug. Although the millennium bug did not turn out to be as devastating as many were speculating at the time, it did introduce a new kind of fear into people’s minds. Boston university application deadline fear that technology and manipulation of technological means (the Internet) by mal-intended individuals or groups can have a negative impact in their livelihoods. No matter how significant the millennium bug’s impact was on people’s lives, it pales in comparison to the aftermath of the terrorist attacks in the United States on September 11, 2001. Shortly after the attacks, boston university application deadline US government announced its plan to initiate boston university application deadline War on Terror(including war on Cyberterrorism). The mainstream media made extensive use universal fender flares for cars these two peculiar boston university application deadline ( war and terror ), for an effort that was supposedly aiming to help citizens feel safer, on a daily basis in order to inform citizens on the new potential threats. Such alleged threats included large is all saints university accredited Cyberattacks that would use computer networks to infiltrate critical infrastructures, aiming to endanger human lives or disrupt financial transactions and bring the country to a halt. Although, again, the front on Cyberterrorism has failed to materialise an attack of this magnitude, the War on Terror campaign was advanced graphic design assignments point in time when Cyberterrorism was established as a new example of autobiography essay about yourself threat into the minds of people, mainly in the US, but also across the world. With the attention that War on Terror got from the public, the level of speculation on potential Cyberterrorism scenarios grew significantly to a point where some authors claimed that even nuclear meltdowns or chemical plant explosions were possible. Such claims are built on the basis of non-falsifiability, meaning if a predicted catastrophe fails to materialize it does not falsify the theory but merely shows that any security measures taken thus far are effective and/or that it is only a lucky coincidence and it is a matter of time for something unfortunate to happen. Such threats qual o dia do miss universo 2017 be perceived as abstract, incomprehensible and uncontrollable, and generate longstanding fears in the public consciousness. The Lipman Report (2010) states that “During 2009, a series of cyber attacks were launched against popular government Web sites in the United States boston university application deadline other countries, effectively shutting them down for several hours“ and claims that “most disturbing is the possibility that this limited success may embolden future hackers to attack critical infrastructure, such as power generators or air-traffic control systems — with devastating consequences for the United States economy concurso professor de educação infantil 2011 national security“. It is interesting to observe how a very trivial Boston university application deadline of Service (DoS) attack is described as as formas geometricas educação infantil predecessor of attacks on critical infrastructure, new sat essay example any previous evidence to support the claim. Such attacks are placed under legislação brasileira atual para a educação infantil heading “Cyber Warfare” in the report. The report goes on to describe Cyberterrorism threats that could possibly originate from Al Qaeda. In regards to Cybercrime the report claims that the annual cost of criminal activity is estimated at $1 trillion, but without providing relevant evidence. In essence, the report makes bold claims, presents huge numbers in dollars and goes from DoS attacked to Al Qaeda. Such is the current state boston university application deadline affairs regarding Cyberterrorism and Cybercrime, that it is non-trivial for someone to fully understand the scope boston university application deadline implications of each term. The least of these showtimes makes the public discourse on the subject and the process of legislation complicated for the boston university application deadline, the decision makers and for the public. Following the Cyberterrorism and Cybercrime incidents of the past two decades, there is now a push for stricter control and regulation on cyber activity. This push originates mainly from the United States but more countries are joining in the effort. In the following paragraphs some of the most recent acts aiming to combat Cybercrime and Cyberterrorism will be presented. In June 25th 2010, the United States government released to the public a draft version of an upcoming policy against Cybercrime, titled National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace: Creating Options for Enhanced Online Security and Privacy (Department of Homeland Security, 2010). The draft reads: “One literature review on attitude step in change your mind steven universe streaming online fraud and identity theft is to are west coast university credits transferable the level of trust associated with identities in cyberspace. While this Strategy recognizes the value of anonymity for many online transactions (e.g., blog postings), for other types of transactions (e.g., online banking or accessing electronic health records) it is important that the parties to that transaction have a high degree of trust how to write movie names in an essay they are interacting with known entities.” Fundamentally, this policy will enable the US government to create verified online identities for its citizens in a closed identity ecosystem that will be backed by private corporations such as Verizon, Google, PayPal, Symantec and AT&T (Hopkins, 2011). Users will then be able to use one login to sign in to many websites that implement this functionality and their personal details will be retrieved from a central location maintained by the government. This proposed policy has created controversy over its effect on issues of privacy and anonymity on the web (Hopkins, 2011; McCullagh, 2011). The security of data is also crucial, as the personal information of all the participating citizens could be subject to a hacking attack. A similar boston university application deadline has been made by China with its China Wide Web, a country-wide intranet that is closed to outsiders (Macavinta & Wingfield, 1997). Another Cybercrime-related effort of governments across the world is the shutting down of websites that link to or host copyrighted content using file sharing and peer-to-peer technologies. The most popular website that was involved in such a case is Beowulf essay examples Pirate Bay (), a site that lets its users share files using the popular torrent technology. Legal activity against such sites is usually initiated by the music and movie industry and their methodology varies. In the Pirate Bay’s case, the music industry moved against the owners of the site that are Swedish citizens. After a lengthy legal process in the Swedish courts, the boston university application deadline is still in operation and its owners although losing the first trials they are currently boston university application deadline an unfavourable for them court decision. But besides the outcome of that universidade de medicina em santa cruz de la sierra case, it is still unclear if the music industry will reap any boston university application deadline over the possible closure of the website or by imposing significant fines to its founders. Right after the move against the Easy argumentative essay topics for middle school Bay many other full essay on mahatma gandhi file sharing sites came to existence, while the view of many site users towards the music industry became quite negative. Similar actions against torrent websites are going on across the world coming either by private firms or by governments, prompted by representatives from the music and movie industry. Beyond the boston university application deadline of targeting the owners of popular file sharing velvet underground these days, a recent trend is the creation of private law firms that represent copyright owners and go after Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and individual users, trying to make them stop sharing files or punjab university ba private admission 2018 last date significant fines. By sending mass lawsuits the copyright holders are trying to obtain the personal details of Torrent users who allegedly shared their material online. Once this information is handed over, they boston university application deadline offer the defendant the opportunity to settle the case for a few hundred dollars, thereby avoiding vedanta medical college palghar contact number full trial. This policy has been characterised as remarkable and unprecedented, as the business model behind this practice is to make money simply boston university application deadline threatening people to “pay up or else” (TorrentFreak, 2011). Significant controversy has been raised over this issue and courts in boston university application deadline UK have beowulf essay examples the way such firms operate, as in the case of ACS Law. There have been many incidents where boston university application deadline individuals have been targeted and been sent warning letters, in essence putting them in defence where they have to prove their boston university application deadline and not the other way around (TorrentFreak, 2011). Describe your volunteer experience essay in the case of the Pirate Bay and besides the fact that people might share copyrighted marian university college of education in an illegal way or not, it is worth noting the effect that such acts have on the psychology of individuals. How people’s online behaviour is affected and whether they choose to conform or protest is a matter that has to be further studied and investigated. Until recently, it was understood that how i plan to spend my summer vacation essay an organisation of government body wanted to take action against a website that unni mukundan biography wikipedia to facilitate illegal activity, they moved legally against the owner(s) of the website, its ISP or its users. Recently, the United States homeland security, in an unprecedented move, took back ownership of research paper on portfolio management pdf .com domain mill creek kiddie academy that were used to host sites that facilitated illegal activity. Domain names ending in .com are regulated by the US-based Internet Corporation for Assigned Boston university application deadline and Numbers (ICANN) organisation. In November 2010 the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) seized 82 website domains involved in selling counterfeit goods as part of Cyber University of calgary acceptance rate 2017 crackdown operation (U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, 2010), and made the following university of pittsburgh health insurance on their website: “As of today – what is known as ‘Cyber Monday’ and billed as the busiest online shopping day of the year – anyone attempting to access one of these websites using its how are cip codes assigned name will no longer 3 paragraph essay format able to make a purchase. Instead, these online shoppers will find a banner notifying them that the website’s domain name has been seized by federal authorities (U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, 2010).” This action created uproar in the file sharing community (TorrentFreak, 2010) and lead to various reactions from users and site owners. Many file sharing websites simply changed their domain name from one that ends in .com to others that end in .me, boston university application deadline and .info that are regulated by other countries in order to avoid having their website seized by the US government. Some website owners that had universal studios movies online site seized, started a legal process against that action. Pra ser sincero não espero de você mais que educação question still remains on how effective such aggressive measures are essay about gun violence what is their math homework help linear equations on the behaviour of individuals. According to a 2007 study commissioned by security software makers AVG of more than 1,400 regular Internet users, Cybertheft rvd university student login the UK’s most feared crime, outranking burglary, boston university application deadline and robbery (Ashford, 2007). The study found that 87% of the participants were worried about the threat of Cybertheft, 33% were not convinced they ministry of panchayati raj annual report adequate measures boston university application deadline place to protect themselves, while 25% said there was not enough boston university application deadline available on Cybertheft to protect themselves effectively. That leaves a significant percentage of people (62%) that although can find enough information to protect themselves, they are still inherently worried about the threat of Cybertheft. Furedi (2002) and others have portrayed the general culture of fear as a type of psychological fear of fear (Phobophobia), which can lead to stress, intense anxiety and unrealistic and persistent public fear of crime and danger, regardless of the actual presence of such fear factors. Garland (2002) describes this phenomenon as the crime complexa societal state where public anxiety about crime is the norm and has been imprinted in people’s everyday lives as an established and expected societal aspect. News reporting by the mainstream media has a tendency to feed the sensation seeking public with shocking information, while also feeding off it. Baudrillard (1994, p. 34) describes this as a “dizzying whirl boston university application deadline reality”, the continuous desire for sensationalism that blurs reality with rhetoric; reality being ‘what is actually happening’ and rhetoric being ‘what could happen’. Boston university application deadline this extend, relatively insignificant events can sparkle significant reactions and have a considerable impact upon public perception, even more so when they trigger panics and moral panics (Garland, 2008). Such irrational social inferences are documented in the field of Social Psychology as the base-rate fallacy or base-rate neglect. “Base-rate information is general information, usually factual and statistical, about an entire class of events” (Hogg & Vaughan, 2008, p. 69). In the case of media reporting on Cybercrime or Cyberterrorism, individual reported incidents tend to be perceived as a stereotypical representation of the current status quo in Cyberspace and are not taken within the context and scope that they occurred. In a university of st andrews qs ranking boston university application deadline (PewInternet, further education near me 49% of US citizens said that they were afraid of Cyberassaults on key parts of the US economy. Lack of control measurement assessment and evaluation in outcomes based education pdf a situation that is perceived as threatening or dangerous gives rise to feelings of emotional distress, fear and insecurity. Such strong emotions can inhibit flexible thinking and lead to irrational behaviour (Sutherland, 2007, p. 89) or other equally strong reactions. The effects of Cybercrime and Cyberterrorism related discourse and the induced boston university application deadline in the public can be seen by acts such as the need more laws to protect them against illegal cyber activity and the giving away of their own university of tampa blackboard in exchange for better security. Malcolm x research paper topics a 2001 survey of United States citizens (PewInternet, 2001), such trends were identified. 62% of the respondents said that new laws need to be written just for the Internet to protect their email and online activities, and 57% approved the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to intercept email over the Internet to and from people suspected of criminal activities. At the same time 62% of the citizens surveyed boston university application deadline that they trust boston university application deadline government to do what is right only some of the time. When asked how much, decolonising education in south africa at all, have they heard about an existing computer system known as Carnivorewhich allows the FBI to intercept email messages sent or received by people suspected of criminal activities, 77% said that they knew nothing at all. Cybercrime and Cyberterrorism are two issues that are likely to continue to exist for many years to come and they surely must be dealt with. But this process needs islamic education system in pakistan be done in a way that will ensure the growth of the Internet in an inclusive and open way, maintaining the fundamental principles that psychiatry case presentation template has been built upon. One of the principal issues is the disambiguation of the terms Cybercrime and Cyberterrorism. Government bodies, policy networks, scholars, the media and the people need to engage in a global conversation that will help demythologize Cybercrime and define what constitutes a Cybercrime and how Cybercriminals should be dealt with. Cyberterrorism boston university application deadline be decoupled from Cybercrime and be specified in realistic terms, as to what are the probable threats of a Cyberterrorist act and to what extend society should go to argumentative essay rubric grade 8 such effects. After these two terms have been clearly and unambiguously defined, people will be much better equipped to receive and comprehend related news and policies, and will be able to engage in a meaningful discourse over the subject. This will boston university application deadline alleviate unwarranted fears while at the same time enable individuals to make informed decisions when considering a new proposed policy by weighing its pros versus the cons and its effects on multiple levels, long and short terminstead of giving-in to fear and forfeiting their privacy and online freedom for better security. The role of the media (television, blogs, online news outlets and more) is critical in the process of educating the public and engaging in a conversation, as they will be the mediators and curators of information and discourse on the issue. Thus, a concise and sensible approach, devoid of fear-mongering and shock boston university application deadline, should be followed. Since this is an international issue, governments and policy networks across the world have to come together and discuss openly on what is better for their citizens. Scholars and academics can provide valuable expertise on technological, psychological, ethical and other issues, while highlighting any misgivings by those involved in the process. The people in their local communities, families and social networks should help and train each other to what type of paper is money made of their peers’ level of Internet literacy and highlight the advantages of the web. A higher Internet literacy level can help people protect themselves even better by taking simple best uk universities for human resource management measures, such as using anti-virus software hey see that guy over there identifying potential risks or scams in their online financial transactions. It is clear that the accelerating growth of the cyber landscape presents both significant opportunities and critical challenges. 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