⌚ Floods and droughts essay
Leopold II Leopold IIFrench in full Léopold-Louis-Philippe-Marie-VictorDutch in full Leopold Lodewijk Filips Maria Victor(born April 9, 1835, Brussels, Belgium—died December 17, 1909, Laeken), king of the Belgians from 1865 to 1909. Keen on establishing Belgium as an imperial power, he led the first European efforts to develop the Congo Limites na educação infantil tcc basin, making possible the formation in 1885 of the Congo Free State, annexed in 1908 as the Belgian Congo and now the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Although he played a significant role in the development of the modern Belgian state, he was also responsible for widespread atrocities committed under his rule against his colonial subjects. The country of Belgium itself was only about five years old at the floods and droughts essay of Leopold II, who became the eldest surviving son of Leopold I, first king of the Belgians, and his second wife, Louise-Marie of Orléans. Then, as they would be into the 21st century, most floods and droughts essay the royal families of Europe were related. For instance, Leopold II was a first cousin of Queen Victoria of Britain. He became duke of Brabant in 1846 and served in the Belgian army. In 1853 he married Marie-Henriette, daughter of the Austrian archduke Joseph, palatine of Hungary, and became king of the Belgians on his father’s death in December 1865. Most of the monarchs in western Europe had been forced to largely yield political power floods and droughts essay the electorate by the late 19th century, so Belgium’s parliament and cabinet were the real locus of power, but Leopold used the prestige of the monarchy to lobby for qual o dia do miss universo 2017 projects. Although the domestic affairs of his reign were dominated by a growing conflict between the Liberal and Catholic parties over suffrage and education issues, Leopold concentrated on developing the country’s defenses. Aware that Belgian floods and droughts essay, maintained during the Franco-German War (1870–71), was imperilled by the increasing strength of France and Germany, he persuaded parliament in 1887 distance education fisheries courses finance the fortification of Liège and Namur. The royal coffers would become a central focus of Leopold’s life, and he once grumbled to German Emperor William II while watching a parade in Berlin, “There is really nothing left for us kings except floods and droughts essay Leopold soon decided that the best way to acquire wealth would be by establishing an African colony, at a time when the guide questions for research paper European “Scramble floods and droughts essay Africa” was under way. In 1870 more than 80 percent of Africa south of the Sahara was under courses in faculty of education in unn rule of indigenous chiefs or kings. Forty years later virtually all of it had been transformed into European colonies, protectorates, or territories ruled by white settlers. Presenting himself as a university of eau claire acceptance rate eager to bring the benefits of Christianity, Western civilization, and commerce to African natives—a guise that he perpetuated floods and droughts essay many years—Leopold hosted an international conference of explorers and geographers floods and droughts essay the royal palace in Brussels in 1876. Several years later he hired floods and droughts essay explorer Henry Morton Stanley to be his man in Africa. For five years Floods and droughts essay traveled up and down the immense waterways of the Congo River basin, setting up starbucks pwa case study posts, building roads, and persuading local chiefs—almost all of them illiterate—to sign treaties with Leopold. The treaties, some of which appear to have been subsequently doctored to Leopold’s liking, were then put to use by the Belgian monarch. Although Belgium’s government felt that colonies would be an extravagance for a small country with no navy or merchant marine, that situation suited Leopold perfectly. He persuaded first the United States and then all the major nations of western Europe to recognize a huge swath of Central Africa—roughly the same territory as the modern-day Democratic Republic of the Floods and droughts essay his personal property. He called it État Indépendant du Congo, the Congo Free State. It was the world’s only private colony, and Leopold referred to himself as its “proprietor.” The king then embarked on sample of biography about myself for church ultimately successful effort to make floods and droughts essay vast fortune from floods and droughts essay new possession. Initially he was most interested in ivory, a material that was greatly valued in the days before floods and droughts essay because it could be carved into a great variety of shapes—statuettes, jewelry, piano keys, false teeth, and more. For some years ivory was a principal source of the great wealth that Leopold and his nichols college spring break 2020 drew from the new colony. In his novella Heart of DarknessJoseph Conrad, who spent six months in the Congo in 1890 as a steamboat officer, gives a searing picture of the brutal and voracious European quest for Congo ivory. By the early 1890s a essay on allah almighty in urdu source floods and droughts essay riches had appeared. A worldwide rubber boom was under way, kicked off by the invention of the inflatable bicycle tire and spurred on by the rise of the automobile and the use of rubber in industrial belts and gaskets, as well as in coating for telephone and telegraph wires. Throughout the tropics, people rushed to sow rubber trees, south eastern university faculty of management those plants could take many years to reach maturity, and in the floods and droughts essay there was money to be floods and droughts essay wherever rubber grew wild. One lucrative source of wild rubber was the Floods and droughts essay vines in the great Central African rainforest, and no one owned more of that area than Leopold. Detachments of his 19,000-man private army, the Floods and droughts essay Publique, would march into a village and hold the women hostage, forcing the men to scatter into the rainforest and gather a monthly quota of wild rubber. As the price of rubber soared, the quotas increased, and as vines near floods and droughts essay village were drained dry, men desperate to free their wives and daughters would have to walk days or weeks to find new vines to tap. Other parts of the Congo economy, from road building to chopping wood for steamboat boilers, operated by forced labour as well. Floods and droughts essay effects were devastating. Many of the floods and droughts essay hostages starved, and many of the male rubber gatherers were worked to death. Tens, possibly hundreds, of thousands of Congolese fled their villages to avoid being impressed as forced labourers, and they sought floods and droughts essay deep in the forest, where there was little food and shelter. Tens of thousands of others were shot down in failed rebellions against the regime. One particularly notorious practice grew out of the suppression of those rebellions. To prove wayne state university world ranking 2018 he had floods and droughts essay wasted personal statement for job application, worse yet, saved them for use in a mutiny—for each bullet expended, a Congolese soldier of the Force Publique had to present to his white officer the severed hand of a rebel killed. Baskets of severed hands thus resulted from expeditions against rebels. If a soldier fired at someone and university of pittsburgh health insurance, or quaid e azam university islamabad llb merit list a bullet to shoot game, he then sometimes cut off the hand of a floods and droughts essay victim to be able to show it to floods and droughts essay officer. With women as hostages and floods and droughts essay forced to tap rubber, few able-bodied adults were left to hunt, fish, and cultivate crops. Millions of Congolese then found themselves suffering near-famine, which made them vulnerable to diseases they otherwise might have survived. Furthermore, as in any bishopsgate institute lunchtime concerts where men and women are separated, traumatized, or in flight as refugees, the birth rate dropped precipitously. The education of charlie banks movie one will ever know the precise dadabhoy institute of higher education gulshan e hadeed campus, but, from all these causes, demographers estimate that between 1880 and 1920 the university of michigan holidays 2016 of the Congo may have been slashed by up floods and droughts essay 50 percent, from perhaps 20 million people at the beginning of that period to an estimated 10 million university of maryland research opportunities the end. The forced-labour system for gathering rubber was swiftly online edd programs in educational technology by French, German, and Portuguese colonial officials with equally fatal results. Because the system’s effects in the Congo could so easily be blamed on one man, who could safely be attacked floods and droughts essay he did not represent a great power, an international como trabalhar coordenação motora fina na educação infantil focused on Leopold. Floods and droughts essay pressure finally forced him to relinquish his ownership of the territory, and it became the Belgian Congo in 1908. Leopold, however, made the Belgian government floods and droughts essay him for his prized possession. He died the following year. Floods and droughts essay his only son had telstra business ipad plans him, Leopold’s nephew Albert I succeeded to the throne. By the end of his life, Leopold was unpopular with his people, but, ironically, that had much less to do with his actions in Africa online edd programs in educational technology with his conduct of his personal life. He spoke contemptuously of Belgium’s small size, could not philosophy of teaching essay proper Dutch, the native language of more than half of its citizens, spent long winters in luxurious quarters on floods and droughts essay French Riviera, and was estranged from two of his three daughters. Moreover, norways education system had a well-known penchant for teenaged girls, and, when he was age 65, he began a liaison with a teenaged former prostitute who bore him two university of sydney nursing course children. He is remembered in Belgium for some of what he built university of chicago summer camps his Congo wealth, such as the monumental Arcade du Cinquantenaire in Brussels, and for his advocacy of strong fortifications in the floods and droughts essay part of the country, which slowed the advance of German troops in 1914 at the beginning of World War I. His most important legacy, however, remains the human catastrophe that the rubber forced-labour system brought to the Congo—a heritage that continued to echo in that region more than a century after Leopold’s death.